Human Characteristics

This is compilation of different knowledge about human.


Without complete understanding of an average human needs and it’s basic functions it is hard to design a fully functional autonomous system. This article is connected with our interest with autonomous systems.

It will be constantly updated as soon as we find more useful data.

This table shows the approximate values of biophysical parameters of an AVERAGE male.

Quantity Approx. value
Basal metabolic rate 70 kcal/hour
Breathing rate 15 /min
Blood pressure 120/80 mmHg
Blood volume 5.2 L
Carbon dioxide production 208 ml/min
Cardiac output 5 L/min
Core temperature 37.0 deg C
Dead space 0.15 L
Fat mass 10 kg
Heart rate 70 beats/min
Heat capacity 0.86 kcal/kg/deg C
Height 1.72 m
Mass 70 kg
Muscle mass 30 kg
Oxygen consumption 260 ml/min
Skin temperature 34.0 deg
Surface area 1.85 sq m
Tidal volume 0.5 l
Total lung capacity 6 l
Vital capacity 4.8 l


water consumption/day

10L

water for drinking@20C

1L

food

2000cal

temperature(comfort without much clothing)

15-30C

sleeping(min)

5hrs

 

A person who was born and lived at sea level will develop a slightly smaller lung capacity than a person who lived a high altitude. This is because the atmosphere is less dense at higher altitude, and therefore, the same volume of air contains fewer molecules of all gases, including oxygen. 

How long a person can survive without food has to do with a series of factors, including initial weight, health and amount of body fat. Muscle burns more calories than fat, even at rest, so leaner people will last for less time without food than those who are even slightly overweight. Activity level also has an effect on the length of survival. As the body burns more calories when at work, those who are relatively inactive will survive longer. Colder temperatures require the body to burn more calories in order to stay warm, so the time you can survive without food and nutrients is a lot shorter.

How long a person can survive without food has to do with a series of factors, including initial weight, health and amount of body fat. Muscle burns more calories than fat, even at rest, so leaner people will last for less time without food than those who are even slightly overweight. Activity level also has an effect on the length of survival. As the body burns more calories when at work, those who are relatively inactive will survive longer. Colder temperatures require the body to burn more calories in order to stay warm, so the time you can survive without food and nutrients is a lot shorter.

Water consumption  quoted by many as 3l/day.  We don’t believe so. Myself I’m barely consume 2L if I drink plenty.

0.5L of water/day at 20C

The human body needs a minimum of 1,500 calories a day to function properly, although some sources quote 2,000. This is known as the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) or amount of energy the body needs to maintain full function of all organs. While it's possible to survive on much less, medical problems will eventually appear, as the body shuts down certain functions in order to stay alive. Prisoners in concentration camps during WWII survived on a diet of about 300 to 600 calories per day, which resulted in a myriad of diseases, as well as death for some. Prisoners on the lower end of the caloric scale lost an average of 9 lbs. per week, and most died within three months.

Therefore we will take figure 2000caloris/day a for basis.

Water consumption for basic needs (excluding drinking): some sources calling from 10L/day for humid and urban places, to 80L/day for rural household in hot and dry environment. Therefore we would quote an amazing 20l/day as of an average water consumption for a frugal living! Although it is hard to believe that we are taking that much per day per person.

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